Almost everything is known about the world around the world, but until now some phenomena and things have no rational explanation. We made a compilation of such inexplicable phenomena, purposely taking different areas of knowledge.
1 The effect of Mpemba (physics) Paradoxically, hot water freezes faster than cold, so the rollers are filled with hot water. In physics, this phenomenon is called the “Mpemba effect.” Why? Because in 1963 a schoolboy from Tanganyika puzzled his teacher with the question of why the heated liquid freezes faster than the cold one. The teacher shrugged off the compulsive schoolboy, saying that it was “not world physics, but Mpemba’s physics.” Erasto did not forget his question and later asked about the same English physicist Denis Osborn, who had arrived with lectures at the University of Dar Es Salaam. Unlike the schoolteacher, Osborne not only did not laugh at the inquisitive student, but conducted a number of experiments with him, and in 1969 together with Erasto published an article in the journal Physics Education, where this phenomenon was called the “Mpemba effect”, although Aristotle, and Francis Bacon once thought about it. Until now, there is no scientifically substantiated explanation for this phenomenon. In 2012, the British Chemical Society even announced a competition for the best explanation of the “Mpemba effect.”
2 Wow-signal (astrophysics) On August 15, 1977, Dr. Jerry Eyman, while working on the “Big Ear” radio telescope, within the framework of the SETI project, recorded a strong narrow-band space radio signal. Its characteristics, such as the transmission band and the signal-to-noise ratio, corresponded to a signal of extraterrestrial origin. Then Ayman outlined the corresponding symbols on the printout and signed in the fields “Wow!”. The radio signal originated from the sky region in the constellation Sagittarius, about 2.5 degrees south of the star group Hee. Ayman was expecting a second signal, but he did not follow. The first problem of the WOW signal is that to send it (if you still accept the hypothesis of its extraterrestrial origin), a very powerful transmitter is required – at least 2, 2 gigawatts. Until now, the most powerful transmitter on Earth has a power of 3600 kW. There are a lot of hypotheses about the origin of this mysterious message, but none of them is recognized. In 2012, to the 35th anniversary of the WOW signal, Arecibo Observatory sent a response from 10,000 encoded messages in the direction of the alleged source. The earthlings did not wait for the answer.
3 The phenomenon of left-handers (physiology) Scientists have been struggling for more than one century to explain the existence of left-handers and right-handers on the Earth, but the development of science is constantly refuted even by the theories recognized before. So, back in the 1860s the French surgeon Paul Broca established the relationship between brain hemispheres and hand activity, saying that the hemispheres of the brain and half of the body are interconnected crosswise. However, modern scholars deny such a simple relationship. Back in the 1970s it was proved that some left-handers have the same left-hemisphere orientation as the right-handed ones. Attempted to contribute to the explanation of the phenomenon of left-handedness and genetics. Scientists from the universities of Oxford, St. Andrews, Bristol and the Max Planck Institute in the Dutch city of Nijmegen have established that the dominance of one of the hands is associated with a group of genes and is being laid already at the stage of embryonic development. The study of the genome led to the finding: the PCSK6 gene influences the search for more. The definition of orientation depends on the number of mutations that occurred in the alleles, but if the dominant feature is right-handedness, why left-handedness has not disappeared from the genetic piggy bank? Today, scientists believe that the “primacy” of one of the hands is not just “dominant” or “recessive,” but a more subtle, some kind of elusive sign. Scientists can not give a single-valued explanation of the phenomenon of left-handed people.
4 Homeopathy (medicine)
The founder of homeopathy is Samuel Hahnemann, who in 1791 conducted an experiment with different doses of quinine and saw that the same substance in various proportions can both heal and maim. The basic principle of homeopathy, the principle of ultra low doses, of today’s medicine is perceived with great skepticism. The substance in homeopathy is diluted in such proportions that in the final composition, according to Avagadro’s number, there is not a single molecule of the original substance left. The homeopaths themselves do not seek complex answers and explain the effect of their preparations on the “memory of water,” although it is not clear why water should “remember” precisely the original substance, rather than thousands of other impurities and chemical elements that are worn in the air or once in the aqueduct imagine for a moment the “cleanest” water pipeline of the beginning of the XIX century). Conducted in 2005 by Dr. Cowen, experiments have shown that water molecules can indeed form a molecular metastructure, but it remains much less than a second. However, homeopathy is not discounted, since even today a lot of cases are recorded, when people recovered after treatment with homeopathic remedies. Doctors explain this by the placebo effect. In October 2013, a study was published proving the association of the placebo effect with an increase in alpha brain activity, but there is as yet no more precise answer to the question of how the placebo works and homeopathy.
5 Bicycle Equilibrium (Mechanic) Why does not the bike fall? It would seem that nothing complicated. First – the castor effect (steering the front wheel in the direction of the bicycle’s deviation from the axis), and secondly – the gyroscopic effect of the rotation of the wheels. However, the American engineer Andy Ruin managed to create a bicycle in which the front wheel rests in the ground before the point of intersection with the axis, which neutralizes the castor effect. The front and rear wheels of the “Ruin bike” are connected with two more, rotating in the opposite direction, this removes the gyroscopic effect. At the same time, the bicycle loses its balance no faster than the simple one. Hence the conclusion: both effects, and castor, and gyroscope play an important role in balancing the balance of the projectile, but are not decisive. Why does not the bicycle fall after all?