Review of materials on machine learning No. 3 (April 16 – 23, 2018)

Good afternoon! This is the third digest of materials on machine learning and data analysis, which appeared after a long break.

Review of materials on machine learning No. 3 (April 16 - 23, 2018)

The events of the upcoming week

1. Data science breakfast. April 25 from 9:30 to 12-00 in the Cafe-bakery “Paradise Pie, pr-t. Mira, 26, p. 1, Moskva

2. 5th DataFest. 28 April.

3. NeuroHive 2018. Open source online hackathon for developers of neural networks.

news

1. We break into 2018 with the next big release: release of version 11.3 of Wolfram Language and Mathematica.

2. TensorFlow 1.8.0-rc0.

3. Weekly review of the portal HighScalability.

4. Passing cs231n together (in Russian).

Scientific articles, practical implementations, data sets

1. Python module to easily generate text using a pretrained character-based recurrent neural network ..

2. Official taiga resistance 2.0.

3. Swift for TensorFlow simulation.

4. Text Classification with TensorFlow Estimators.

5. Convolutional Neural Networks for Relation Extraction

6. It’s Training Cats and Dogs: NVIDIA Research Uses AI to Turn Cats into Dogs, Lions and Tigers, Too.

7. Problems of image segmentation with the help of the neural network Unet.

8. Which of the Hollywood stars is most similar to my voice ?.

9. Neural Style Transfer: A Review.

10. Implementations of 15 NLP research papers using Keras, Tensorflow, and Scikit Learn ..

11. The 2018 Stanford CS224n NLP course projects are now online. A lot of them are pretty impressive ..

12. Collection of popular object detection models with pre-trained weights in TensorFlow.

13. Representing Language with Recurrent and Convolutional Layers: An Authorship Attribution Example.

14. Data Science Bowl 2018. Orisanie decision of the winner.

15. Revisiting Oxford and Paris: Large-Scale Image Retrieval Benchmarking

16. How to select characteristics and select hyperparameters by testing statistical hypotheses.

17. TwinGAN – Cross-Domain Translation of Human Portraits.

18. Shared Autonomy via Deep Reinforcement Learning.

19. Data Augmentation | How to use Deep Learning when you have Limited Data.

20. The fall of RNN / LSTM.

21. Another article on the recognition of workers without helmets by neural networks.

22. Speed ​​up TensorFlow Inference on GPUs with TensorRT.

23. How Music Generated by Artificial Intelligence Is Reshaping – Not Destroying – The Industry.

24. Semantic Segmentation – U-Net (Part 1).

25. Association rules, or beer with diapers.

26. Understand how works Resnet … without talking about residual.

27. SfSNet: Learning Shape, Reflectance and Illuminance of Faces’ in the wild.

28. A List Of The Top 10 Deep Learning Papers, The 2018 Edition.

29. Yann LeCun: Power and Limits of Deep Learning for Signal Understanding (ICASSP 2018 plenary). Video.

30. Simple Tensorflow implementation of “Multimodal Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation”.

31. SNcGAN – Generate Conditional Images.

32. Deploying Deep Learning Models on Kubernetes with GPUs.

33. Apply the Deep Watershed Transform in the Kaggle Data Science Bowl 2018 competition.

34. How to implement a YOLO (v3) object detector from scratch in PyTorch: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5.

35. A Keras implementation of YOLOv3 (Tensorflow backend) allanzelener/ YAD2K ..

36. Pytorch implementation of MaxPoolingLoss ..

37. An intuitive introduction to Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs).

38. Nice ideas about unit testing ML code.

39. What is asked for an interview on AI in Apple ?.

40. A collection of popular Data Science Competitions.

41. Monte-Carlo Search for Magic: The Gathering.

42. Dataset “The Open Semantics of the Russian Language.”

Previous issue: Overview of materials on machine learning.

VTsIOM named the number of Russians who supported Telegram

A quarter of Russian Internet users consider it important to keep access to Telegram’s messenger in Russia. This is reported by RIA Novosti with reference to the results of the VTsIOM poll.

The importance of communication through Telegram was expressed by 24% of respondents (however, among the younger generation 18-24 this indicator is higher – 45%). Another 64% of respondents said that the issue of accessibility of Telegram in Russia is not important for them (43% of them gave the answer – “it does not matter at all”).

VTsIOM also found out that every eighth (12%) internet user has a Telegram. The most popular messenger was WhatsApp – 59%, followed by Viber (45%), Skype (41%), Google Hangouts (17%), Facebook Messenger (15%) and then Telegram. For comparison, ICQ is used by 3% of users. There is no information about TamTam.

When choosing Telegram, Russian users are guided by the fact that the instant messenger is already available to their friends or acquaintances (45%), service convenience (35%), confidentiality guarantee (26%) and reading of information channels (18%),

Ecosystem OpenPOWER is ready for mass deployment

Just the other day, we told readers about the first tests of the POWER9 platform. The results were ambiguous, but this can be attributed to the lack of software optimization, taking into account the features and capabilities of the new processors. Another thing is important: the ice has moved, and the initiative OpenPOWER starts to give the first fruits in the market, and not only in the form of servers and cluster systems. Although the latter is also very important, because the systems based on POWER9 interested in Google, and the supercomputer Summit inspires respect for its parameters. Chris Sullivan, deputy director of the Oregon Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing (CRGB), believes porting applications to the POWER9 platform is easy enough: in one or two months, about 2000 applications were recomputed, whereas the number of applications already The available programs for x86 is about 4000.

Ecosystem OpenPOWER is ready for mass deployment

The main sign that the OpenPOWER ecosystem is ready for a large-scale deployment is the fact that IBM has decided to seriously support Linux and the standard little endian, first in the POWER8 processors, and then in the POWER9. The latter is especially important, since the order of writing bytes is fundamental: code created on a system operating in the big-endian mode (BE, from the older to the younger), without preparation in principle, will not work on a platform where the fundamental mode is little-endian (LE, from Junior to Senior). The first mode was traditionally used in large IBM systems and many other processor architectures, while the latter was firmly established in the x86 environment, and as the popularity of it grew, the research sector also gained. But now the launch of existing applications, many of which have no analogues, became possible, as new IBM systems support both modes. In fact, with the advent of POWER8, the software “inside” works in the mode bigendian (BE), but in LE applications, the data order changes automatically, which is transparent to the operating system, applications, and, of course, the user.

Compilers, such as XLC or GCC, can compile code in normal PPC mode or in PPCLE mode. All this facilitates the support of such a common OS in the scientific world, like Linux. Back in November of last year Red Hat announced LE support for POWER9 and since then interest in IBM POWER systems with LE support has been steadily growing. This can not but please everyone who is involved with the initiative OpenPOWER, as well as enthusiasts tired of the dominance of x86. After all, this move from IBM will allow using innovations like NVLink, OpenCAPI or PCI Express 4.0 in the usual Linux environment. Some complications create optimization of old software with SSE or SSE2, but in general the problem is solved, say IBM representatives. The ultimate goal is to attract major users of the new platform, such as CGRB (Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing). For example, CRGB starts about 20 thousand tasks a day, has at its disposal 5000 processors, more than four petabytes of data stores and generates about 4-9 terabytes of data per day.

A source:

Exorcism in the 21st Century: the Exorcism of the Demons by Phone

As you know, progress can not be stopped, and new technologies seep into places where their existence is difficult to imagine. For example, in the rite of exorcism by a Catholic priest.

Exorcism in the 21st Century: the Exorcism of the Demons by Phone

For more than ten years, the Roman Catholic Church has been conducting exorcism courses, whose visitors are learning to recognize the devil, to distinguish obsession from mental illness and to cast out demons. And this year it was decided to make life even easier for future exorcists. Now they can carry out the ritual on a mobile phone. Progress has reached here.

According to Reuters, one of the teachers at the courses, Cardinal Ernest Simonyi, believes that reading the prayer that drives out demons by phone is equivalent to carrying out the ritual in person. “They call me, we say, and so I’m doing a ritual,” explains Simonyi.

Officials of the Catholic Church claim that the number of incidents involving demon possession is growing, as is the number of requests for exorcism. Probably, this is what motivates the technological improvement of the ritual. This year about 200 people visited the courses on the expulsion of demons. It lasts only a week, is held in Rome, after which the students receive a certificate that they listened to the course. True, he does not give the right to cast out demons, only priests can do this, and receive a direct permission from the bishop. But Catholics with a certificate, not ordained, can become “exorcist assistants”, giving moral support to the priest during the ritual.

However, modernity penetrated into the ritual not only through telephone communication. Last year, the Catholic Church officially allowed the translation of the text, expelling demons, from Latin to English. “Since Latin is not as well known as it used to be, even among priests, such a step opens the possibility of conducting a ritual to a greater number of clerics,” says Father Andrew Menke.

Team Skolteha will represent Russia in robotic competitions Eurobot

MOSCOW, April 24. / TASS /. A team of robots from the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology (SkTech) ReSET won the Russian stage of robotic competitions Eurobot and will represent Russia in the finals of this international competition, which will be held in France in May.

"As a winner of the Russian stage, the team will go to the final of the contest, where it will have to compete with the strongest representatives of the world community of robotics. Final Eurobot competition will be held in La Roche-sur-Yon in France from 9 to 12 May", – the press service of the university said on Tuesday.

The main task of the Russian stage of the competition, the theme of which in 2018 was "Cities of robots. Building a better world", it became the creation of robots capable of solving various tasks of megacities. For example, providing the city with drinking water or energy, building buildings, help in growing plants and so on.

According to the head of the team, the head of the Laboratory of Intellectual Space Robotics Skoltekh, Professor Dmitry Teteryukov, the key to success "Skoltehov" became their unity.

"Robotics is always a team work. And for this, talented, experienced professionals from various fields of knowledge are needed. We have wonderful, highly qualified specialists. We taught them a lot and as a result we created a single, cohesive team, where everyone understands that he is responsible for the success of the whole project", said Teteryukov, whose words are contained in the message.

The ReSET team has been in existence for three years and the third consecutive year has won the Russian stage Eurobot. It includes not only specialists in the field of information technology and electronics, but also mechanical engineers. "Finding the right people, training them and uniting them into a team is a huge job, but in the end it allows you to create unique products", noted Teteryukov.

About the contest

International youth robotics competitions Eurobot are held since 1990, since 2006 representatives of Russia participate in them. To qualify for victory in this prestigious world tournament, you need to be the best at the national stage. Tasks for national selection, as a rule, are announced in the fall. And the teams create their own robots and prepare them for the full-time stage of the tournament, which takes place in April. One of the key features of Eurobot is the solution with the help of robotics of applied problems.

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

Having studied hundreds of galaxies, scientists have revealed a clear connection between their shape and the age of the stars. Galaxies with younger stars have an oblate shape, while galaxies with old stars have a rounded shape.

Astronomers of the University of Sydney (Australia) studied 843 galaxies to discover this connection. With the help of the analysis of the trajectory of motions of stars, experts measured the ellipticity of galaxies – how flat or round they are. In highly elliptical galaxies (for example, the Milky Way), stars move along a strict unchanged trajectory. In round galaxies with low ellipticity, the stars move randomly, like a swarm of bees.

Comparison of age and movements of stars showed that the older the stars, the more random their movements. Therefore, galaxies with such stars have a circular shape. In young stars, a stable trajectory of motion determines the planar shape of the galaxy. Scientists do not know yet whether spiral galaxies are born flat at once and are “rounded” over time, or the roundness of the galaxy begins to form immediately after its appearance.

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

The researchers used computer tomography to find out exactly how whales hear. The full-scale scanning of the body of the young whale was carried out thanks to the technology that is commonly used for rockets.

Scientists used an industrial CT scanner designed to scan rocket engines. They learned how exactly the sound passes through the skull and head of the baby whale, whose body was preserved as a scientific sample. Experts from the University of California in San Diego (USA) have created a 3D model of how the skull reacted to different audio frequencies. It turned out that the whale’s skull acts as an antenna when it detects low-frequency sounds.

It is assumed that the skulls of whales are particularly sensitive to low-frequency sounds, because they communicate with them. The new information will help to take measures to minimize the impact of human noise on these marine mammals.

Photo: Ted Cranford / San Diego State University

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

Scientists first discovered an unusual method of hunting for ants of the Azteca brevis type. These small tree ants live in the forests of Costa Rica and are capable of killing prey that weighs fifty times more than they themselves.

A new study made it possible to discover that the traps that the ants arrange on the tops of trees allow them to capture large insects so they can then bite to death. Strange nests are a network of tunnels on the bark of a tree with many holes on the surface. They work on the principle of a medieval rack: the ants allow the prey to crawl from above, and then get out of the holes and press it against the surface. The legs of the victim thus fall into the holes of the nest, where they are fixed until it is completely immobilized.

Scientists from the University of Toulouse in France noticed effective hunting techniques. Since such a pattern of behavior was first recorded among ants of this species, experts are going to study the phenomenon in more detail. According to them, the trap is absolutely unique and characterizes a very specific way of life for the species of ants and its ecological niche.

Photo: Alain Dejean

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

Scientists want to create a modern “Noah’s Ark”, which can change our understanding of evolution. An international group of experts plans to collect and store DNA samples of all known plants, animals and fungi over the next decade. The resulting “library” of the genome will help to learn more about the evolution of species and how to improve environmental conditions.

The Earth BioGenome project is estimated at 3.4 billion dollars and is called “the most ambitious project in the history of modern biology.” It is headed by researchers from the Smithsonian Institution in Washington who believe that cataloging DNA of all kinds on Earth can become a vital resource for innovation in medicine and agriculture.

The creators of the project write that in the genomes of known and unknown organisms of our planet contain “unimaginable” biological secrets. At the end of the century more than half of all species will disappear from the face of the Earth, which will entail certain consequences for human life. The Earth BioGenome project will give researchers an insight into the diversity of life and help them better understand how to preserve it. It is expected that for the completed project it will take about one billion gigabytes of digital storage.

Ornithologists have classified a new species of paradise birds. A wonderful bird of paradise (Lophorina superba) lives in the mountains of Western New Guinea (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea. These birds are distinguished by super-black feathers, which absorb almost the whole world, and fascinating marriage dances. Now scientists have discovered that in fact there are two species of these birds instead of one.

A new species – Vogelkop superb bird-of-paradise – has certain characteristics that distinguish it among ordinary birds of paradise. Experts note differences in mating dances of males, singing and differences in the appearance of individuals. According to the ornithologists of Cornell University (USA), after observing the birds under wildlife conditions, there is no doubt that this is a completely different species. In the video, you can see that the male’s feather apron during the dance takes the form of a crescent moon, while in ordinary birds of paradise it becomes oval.

Both species live in New Guinea, but Vogelkop is found only on the far western tip of the island of Chendravasih (the niger. Vogelkop).

A photo: Tim Laman & Ed Scholes / Macaulay Library

The shape of the galaxy depends on the age of its stars

The astrophysicist from Germany presented yet another theory that explains why we have not yet met with extraterrestrial civilizations. Michael Hippke (Michael Hippke), an independent researcher from the Sonneberg Observatory in Germany, says that aliens on their home planet may face a problem of too powerful gravity that will prevent them from flying into space.

It is assumed that life is possible on exoplanets or super-earths that are similar to Earth. Super Earth is a class of planets whose mass exceeds the mass of the Earth, but is considerably smaller than the mass of gas giants. These planets can have a thick layer of atmosphere that keeps life on the surface, but a space flight from super-earth will cost much more.

In his study, Hippke calculated how much power a spacecraft must possess to overcome the attraction of super-earth. The larger the planet, the more fuel will be needed for the flight. To launch the ship from the super-earth it would take a quantity of fuel equal to the weight of the Cheops pyramid. As a result, the high cost and labor input may prevent other civilizations from mastering interplanetary flights. Of course, hypothetical aliens may well invent a completely different technology of space travel, but so far there has been no alien contact, one should not rely too much on it.

How to protect information in the era of a quantum computer?

Tv Knowledge Bank

What is the future of quantum cryptography?

PostNauka continues to talk about modern technologies in the “Knowledge Bank” project, prepared jointly with the Corporate University of Sberbank.

In the modern information society, one of the main issues is the problem of the protection and safe transmission of information. Learn more about what quantum cryptography is and whether it is possible to reliably protect the transmitted information using quantum algorithms, in the lecture of the physicist Alexei Fedorov.

How to protect information in the era of a quantum computer?

The science of oil

Smart city: test of urban future

How to protect information in the era of a quantum computer?A short guide to wireless communication

How to protect information in the era of a quantum computer?Knowledge Bank

Algerian camels found prion disease

Algerian camels found prion diseaseWalther Dobbertin / Bundesarchiv

Scientists have documented several cases of spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) in camels living on farms in the northeast of Algeria, according to Emerging Infectious Diseases. According to preliminary estimates of the researchers, about three percent of animals are sick.

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are called neurodegenerative diseases, which lead to irreversible changes in the brain. In most cases, these diseases are fatal. They are caused by the abnormal form of prion proteins, which, like viruses, are able to catalyze the transformation of proteins with a normal structure into “wrong” ones. The incubation period lasts from 2.5 to 8 years. Species of spongiform encephalopathy are known, among others, in large and small cattle, wild herbivores (deer, moose) and humans. The disease is transmitted from infected animals to humans if they ate the meat of a sick animal. Prions are thermally stable and active even in cooked meats.

For the first time epizootic of spongiform encephalopathy was recorded in cattle in the UK in 1986. Later, the disease was found in Ireland and some European countries. Presumably, it was caused by the fact that healthy cows were fed meat-bone meal, obtained from infected animals. Despite the introduction of quarantine and slaughter of sick animals, from 1980 to 2014, more than 200 Europeans died from a new form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (a human variety of spongiform encephalopathy).

Algerian and Italian biologists and veterinarians, led by Gabriele Vaccari of the Italian Food Safety and Nutrition Department, reported on cases of prion disease in dromedaries living on cattle farms in Algeria. Earlier it was not known that camels could suffer from this disease.

The researchers noticed suspicious symptoms in some animals that were brought to an abattoir in the town of Ouargle, located in the north-east of the country. In the early stages of the disease, animals become aggressive, begin to kick and bite. Later they have ataxia (violation of coordination of movements), which leads to the inability to stand on their feet and after a while the animal dies.

The researchers analyzed the presence of prion samples of brain tissue in three dead camels, who had symptoms of a neurological disease, and one of them had several lymph nodes. To control, scientists took a sample of the brain tissue from one healthy animal.

The results of the analysis showed that the camels were really sick with spongiform encephalopathy. Scientists have confirmed the presence of abnormal forms of prions that cause disease in the brain and in the tissues of the lymph nodes. After a retrospective study, scientists estimated the number of diseased animals at the slaughterhouse in Wargla at three percent.

The authors of the article could not understand how the Algerian camels became infected. On the one hand, after the European countries banned the use of bone meal in the diets of livestock in the late 1980s, its exports to third world countries increased significantly. On the other hand, if the spongiform encephalopathy had entered the country from Europe, the cows would be the first to become infected, and there was no epizootic of mad cow disease in Algeria. Obviously, in order to understand where the disease came from, it will be necessary to study its geographical distribution, as well as to explore the prions obtained from the brain of sick camels.

Earlier, Italian physicians managed to isolate abnormal prion protein, which reproduces in the laboratory, but does not infect animals.

The whale shark turned out to be a great traveler

Scientists first traced the migration of the whale shark – the largest fish in the world. It turned out that during the year it swims more than 20 thousand kilometers.

The whale shark turned out to be a great traveler

The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is the largest shark in the world and in general the largest fish; more were only extinct giants. The largest of those seen by a man have a length of more than 12 meters, but scientists do not rule out that they grow and more. Little is known about the way of life of these animals, about migration routes – almost nothing. Only this year, scientists from the Smithsonian Tropics Research Institute in Panama completed monitoring the movements of one individual, and it turned out that in a year the shark swims 20,000 kilometers from the eastern Pacific to the Indian Ocean.

Marine biologist Héctor M. Guzmán fixed the sensor transmitting coordinates and data on the water temperature to the satellite on the body of a whale shark caught near the shores of Panama. The data transfer was carried out only when the shark surfaced close to the surface. The shark (she was called Anna) stayed in Panama for 116 days and then headed towards Costa Rica and the Galapagos Islands to the place where sharks each year gather in large groups. After that, the signal for a long time disappeared – the shark went to depth. Again he appeared in the vicinity of the Hawaiian archipelago. The shark visited the coast of the Marshall Islands and looked into the Mariana Trench and moved further east.

Previously, scientists have guessed that whale sharks migrate over long distances, only from the results of genetic studies that show that all whale sharks in the world are rather close relatives. Some places of their annual “meetings” are known, which at the height of the season attract crowds of tourists – amateurs of marine fauna. Among such places are the coasts of Oman, Australia, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Mozambique and the Seychelles.

The study is published in the journal Marine Biodiversity Records.

RSC Energia was told about the space crews of the future

RSC Energia was told about the space crews of the future© RIA Novosti / Press Service of the Federal Space Agency

MOSCOW, April 27 (Itar-Tass) – RIA Novosti. The space crews of the future should consist of an experienced commander from the cosmonaut corps, an engineer and a researcher from a scientific institute, the organizer of the experiment on the ground simulation of the working day of the crew of the Scientific and Energy Module for the ISS, the head of the flight and test department of the Rocket and Space Corporation (RKK) "Energy" Mark Serov.

RSC Energia was told about the space crews of the futureAt the ISS, "samovar" with water for astronauts

The experiment was conducted in the RCM "Energy" 24 and 26 April. Each of the two crews included a commander from the Cosmonaut Training Center (CPC), an engineer from "Energy" and researcher – from the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The launch of the module to the International Space Station is planned until 2021.

"The results of the experiment convincingly prove that the designers competently approached the development of the module design, took into account both the proposals of the cosmonauts and the issues of technical aesthetics. The proposals and comments, in fact, were not so many, and all of them will be included in the reporting documentation. On the transition to the stage of manufacturing a flying product, we can safely say that the ergonomic provision of the NEM was carried out by us in full", – the press service quotes Serov as saying. "Energy".

At the first stage, the working day of the crew of three people was simulated: a manual mode of docking with a cargo ship, working with scientific equipment, maintenance and repair of the module were simulated.

In the future, the experimental layout of the on-board instructions and techniques for this module, as well as the documentation for its integration into the Russian segment of the ISS, is planned on the layout. Evaluation of ergonomics will be carried out already at the next stage of the creation of NEM – on the flight product.